Cidade de 15 minutos

Realidade ou utopia?

A expressão “cidade de 15 minutos”, foi cunhada em 2016 por Carlos Moreno, urbanista colombiano, professor na Sorbonne, que representa um novo paradigma para combater as mudanças climáticas e melhorar as condições de vida nas cidades, as maiores contribuintes para as emissões de CO₂, e, dentro delas, os transportes. Com os centros e as periferias cada vez mais distantes, tudo o que se faz implica tomar um transporte – e emitir mais carbono. Para Moreno, o carro está no cerne da evolução perniciosa das cidades. Como explicava o urbanista, “os carros mudaram a dinâmica do planejamento urbano, abrindo portas às devastadoras consequências da expansão urbana”. O decréscimo da qualidade de vida, a diminuição da qualidade do ar, da biodiversidade, o peso sobre a desmatamento (para construção de mais e mais subúrbios, mais e mais estradas), o aumento das necessidades energéticas e as emissões de carbono e o respetivo efeito no clima. Mas também, no endividamento das famílias para a compra de carro e a sua manutenção – e o aumento das desigualdades sociais. No conceito da cidade de 15 minutos, as discussões que sempre giravam em torno da mobilidade verde, ganharam um novo conceito: o da proximidade. A prioridade deixa de ser somente desenvolver tecnologias para ter uma mobilidade mais limpa, mas também reduzir radicalmente, a mobilidade nas cidades, para que num perímetro curto, as pessoas possam desenvolver as funções sociais essenciais, como: morar, trabalhar, comprar, cuidar, educar e divertir-se, a pé ou de bicicleta. Finalmente, esse conceito de cidade de 15 minutos é realidade ou utopia? No Brasil ainda é utopia, mas, em Paris, a cidade dos 15 minutos está em plena construção. Literalmente. E Lisboa já segue na mesma pegada. Na capital francesa, há obras por todo o lado, e a socialista Anne Hidalgo, ganhou as eleições em 2020 com essa proposta. Teve que superar muitas críticas e oposição, sob a acusação de estar transformando a cidade para as bicicletas. Por isso o ponto mais importante é mudar as mentalidades das pessoas. Hoje na cidade, menos de 46% da população usa carro particular para se deslocar, quando há 20 anos eram mais que 60%. A cidade tem mais de 1000 km com ciclovias dedicadas e protegidas, e o plano é fazer para todas as ruas da cidade. Havia uma dificuldade para o projeto que parecia intransponível: a dificuldade de adaptação do comércio, por conta dos altos valores dos aluguéis numa cidade onde turismo eleva os preços dos imóveis. Para superar essa dificuldade, a Câmara de Paris comprou mais de 62 mil lojas para pô-las em concessão por meio de uma plataforma, para determinados usos. Uma forma de reforçar a malha do comércio e serviços de proximidade e favorecer a produção local de alimentos, comércio cultural como livrarias, artesanato, ferragens e mercearias, serviços, espaços de fabricação. Essa forma de planejamento centralizado tem 4 objetivos: gerar locais para que os negócios possam funcionar, promover a economia local, desenvolver as atividades nos distritos para equilibrar o ecossistema. Na sequência deste programa, a cidade de Paris instituiu uma marca “Fabrique a Paris” – fabricado em Paris, para encorajar as pessoas a produzir, para criar empregos, para criar economia, para desenvolver o vínculo social. Na cidade de 15 minutos da França, as escolas se transformam nos finais de semana em palco para exposição, teatro e música e mais de 100 hectares de espaço vazio, foram transformados em hortas urbanas. Segundo Moreno, “Este é um modelo novo para gerir a cidade. A atmosfera de uma cidade mais feliz. E mais próxima. Como deviam ser as cidades.” 

Autor: Arlindo Teles – texto baseado na entrevista do Urbanista Carlos Moreno ao site “Mensagem” de Lisboa. 

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